Meaning, Scope and Media
Communication is the process of sending and receiving information if is the vehicle trough which with develop maintain and improve human relationships. At times it become the tool through which human relationship are undermined even destroyed. Communication word is drawn from communis (Latin Derivation) which means common the idea of commonality is frequently stressed in talking about communication.
Communication is central to the management of any organization yet, as Peter Drucker has observed, communication “has proven as elusive as the unicorn” there is so much noise about communication in modern times that nobody is clear about what it is especially in the management of organization.
Communication is a process taking place generally at two levels: interpersonal and mass, it is base of society. Without it, there is no social interaction, no economic or political exchange, no cultural cohesion. In modern times, all attention seems to be concentrated on mass communication.
Meaning and Definition of Mass Communication:
Humancommunication is a process of transmission of ideas, thoughts, feelings and behaviors from one person to another person through mechanical or electronic channels.
Mass communication it is the process of delivering information, ideas and attitudes to a sizable and diversified through use of media developed for that purpose. The art of mass communication is much more difficult than that of face to face communication. The communicator who is addressing thousand of different personalities at the some time cannot adjust an appeal to meet their individual reaction. An approach that convinces one part of the audience may alienate another part. The successful communicator is one who find the right method of expression to establish empathy with the largest possible number of individuals in the audience.
The mass communicator’s task break down into two parts, knowing what to communicate and how to delivery the message to make the greatest possible impact on an audience. A message of poor content told to millions of people, may have less total effective impact than a well presented message placed before a small audience. Effectiveness of the message leaves the last impression.
The audience in Mass communication, according to Wright (1975) is relatively large, heterogeneous and anonymous to the source. The experience is public and rapid. Te source works through a complex organization rather than I isolation and the message may represent the efforts of many different people. Consider again the first element in this definition: the audience. Although in some person-to-group and organizational settings the audience is quite large, face to face interaction is often possible. In mass communication, the size of the audience makes it impossible to the mass communicator and audience member to interact face to face. In addition to being a diversified group, the receiver in mass communication are, for the most part, unknown to the source.
The second element, the experience is public rather then private because the messages are not addressed to particular individual. It is intended for rapid consumption by large number of people.
The third elements in this definition of mass communication the source of the communication, is not working in isolation but rather from within complex organization.
Definitions of Mass Communication:
- According to William Rice-Johnson, “A communication takes place when one individual, a sender displays, transmits or otherwise directs a set of receiver, with the aim of changing something the receiver is doing (or not doing) or changing his or her world view. This set of symbols is typically described as a message.”
- According to U.S Army, “communication is the exchange and follow of information and ideas from one person to another, it involves a sender transmitting an idea, information or feeling to a receiver.”
- According to Napoleon Bonaparte, “The strong man is the one who is able to intercept at will the communication between the senses and the mind.”
- According to Tony Robins, “effective communication we must realize that we are all different in the way we perceive the world and use this understanding as a guide to our communication with others.”
(Reference- www.definition of mass communication.com)
Scope of Mass Communication:
Mass communication has evolved into a specialized field today. Till few years back, the course in Mass Communication was not an eligibility to join any media. A person with an English Honors degree or Economics Honors degree with an interest in current affairs was easily accorded the position of a journalist or sub-editor in a newspaper. If somebody has an artistic bent of media and a graduate, the road to a advertisement agency used to be easy for him/her. But scene has undergone a sea change today. Students with Journalism and Mass Communication degree are given preference over a simple graduate. The first institute to provide a formal education in the field of mass communication is the Indian Institute of Mass Communication (IIMC).Located in the JNU campus; it was set up by the government in 1965. In 1966 it was made an autonomous Institution under the ministry of Information and Broadcasting. Today it has number of courses relating to different Medias.
(Reference-web site http://www.indiaeducation.net/masscommunication.scenario.aspx)
Communication has unlimited scope which can be understood under two broad headings
1. External dimension
2. Internal dimension
External Dimension regarding communication has a bigger arena which includes buildings relations which external agencies and stakeholders. Effective communication can establish a healthy external organizational climate in which there is trust, co-operation, collaboration, innovation and commitment.
A lot of communication takes place within organization by formulating the corporate vision, laying down policy objectives and taking goals to their stage of implementation.
In addition to external and internal dimensions, the scope of communication can be further expanded to include:
- Oral and non-verbal communication.
- Interpersonal, intrapersonal and mass communication.
- Human communication.
- Reading writing speaking and listening.
Media serve as a link between the company that has a service or product to sell and the customers who wish to buy it. The media that available for advertising include radio, television, newspaper, magazines and others that are not so obvious, such as direct mail, hoardings, point of purchase displays etc. even the slickest and most imaginative advertising message will fail if it is delivered to the wrong people. To make sure that this catastrophe does not happen, advertisers employ highly skilled media planners to help them place and schedule their advertisement. With the numerous mass media that are available to deliver the message and the hundreds of individual media outlets to choose from, it is necessary to study closely what each of the various media can offer.
The advertising specialists look at the various media, the tend to evaluate them along four dimensions:
- Reach- How many people get the message?
- Frequency- How often will the message be received?
- Selectivity- Does the medium actually reach potential customers?
- Efficiency- How much does it cost to reach a certain number of people?
Newspapers have good reach. Many newspapers are published daily, which means that advertisers can present their message to the audience with a high degree of frequency.
Magazines tend to have a more limiter reach than newspapers. Further, most magazines come out once per month, which means that the potential for the frequent presentations of an advertisement is not high. On the other hand, magazines offer a tremendous degree of selectivity for the advertisers. If an advertiser wanted to reach housewives, he could choose among several publications designed for that audience segment. the cost of magazines advertising tends to be relatively high, but this cost must be evaluated against its efficiency in reaching a target group.
Radio has excellent and allow advertisers to present their messages with great frequency. Moreover, the cost of radio advertising is low and presents a good value to advertisers.
Television has almost universal appeal and allows for frequent repetition of messages. The potential of selectivity of TV increases with the widespread growth of cable TV channels, MTV, for example, main of fifteen to twenty year old. On the cost dimension, the cost of advertising on television is very high. It is so expensive that many smaller companies simply cannot afford it.
Normative Theories of Mass Media:
These theories explain how the media ‘ought to’ or can be ‘expectedto’ operate under the prevailing set of political economic circumstances. Since each society controls its mass media in accordance with its policies and need, it formulates its own separates press theory. Therefore the media system that exists in a country is directly related to the political system in hat country.
The main principles of Authoritarian Theory:
- Media should do nothing which could undermine established authority or disturb order.
- Media should always be subordinate to established authority.
- Censorship can be justified to enforce these principles.
- Media should avoid offence to majority, or dominant, moral and political values.
- Journalist or other media professionals have no independence within their media organizations.
Social Responsibility Theory:
The main principle of this theory
- Media should accept and fulfill certain obligations to society by setting high or professional standards or truth, accuracy, objectivity and balance etc.
- Journalism and media professionals should be accountable to society as well as to employees.
The main principle of this theory
- Publication should be free from any prior censorship.
- Their should be no compulsion to publish anything.
- Their should be no restriction on getting or sending information overseas.
- Journalist should have professional autonomy within their organization.
Development Media Theory:
The limited application of the four established theory of the press to third world countries has led to the birth of a new media theory whose main task is that communication may used to carry out the development functions in a society. Developed mass communication as follows:
- Communication infrastructure; the professional skills; the production and cultural resources and the available audience, etc.
- Technology skills and cultural products.
- Developing countries awareness of their similar identity and interest in international politics.
(Reference – Hand Book of Journalism and Mass Communication, Vir Bala Aggarwal, v.s. Gupta, page no 42, 43)
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